outer context measures

Below are quantitative measures that assess outer context EPIS constructs. Note that some measures can be used to assess for outer or inner context constructs if questions are adapted and tailored to refer to the appropriate level of inquiry.

Service Environment Policies

System Level Leadership

Population Patient/Client Characteristics

  • Demographics, Administrative Claims Data

Program or EBP Sustainment

inner context measures

Note that some measures can be used to assess outer or inner context constructs if questions are adapted and tailored to refer to the appropriate level of inquiry.


Implementation Leadership Scale: (Aarons, Ehrhart, & Farahnak, 2014). A brief 12-item measure of Implementatin leadership.

Organizational characteristics

Group Innovation Inventory: (Strating & Nieboer, 2010). This inventory assesses norms for innovation and is potentially useful for managers.

Implementation Climate Scale: (Ehrhart, Aarons, & Farahnak, 2014). The ICS is a very brief (18 item) and pragmatic measure of a strategic climate for EBP implementation. It captures six dimensions of the organizational context that indicate to employees the extent to which their organization prioritizes and values the successful implementation of EBPs.

Implementation Climate Measure (Jacobs, Weiner, & Bunger, 2014).

Level of Institutionalization Scale: (Goodman, McLeroy, Steckler, & Hoyle, 1993).

Measure of Innovation-Specific Implementation Intentions (MISII): Moullin et al 2018.

Organizational Climate Measure: (Patterson, West, Shackleton, Dawson, Lawthom, Maitlis, Robinson, & Wallace, 2005). This multidimensional measure of organizational climate (17 subscales) offers a relatively comprehensive and flexible approach to the assessment of organizational members' experience of their work environment.

Organizational Culture and Climate - Children’s Services Survey

Organizational Readiness for Change: (Lehman, Greener, & Simpson, 2002). This assessment focuses on motivation and personality attributes of program leaders and staff, institutional resources, and organizational climate as an important first step in understanding organizational factors related to implementing new technologies into a program.

Organizational Social Context Measure: (Glisson, Landsverk, Schoenwald, Kelleher, Hoagwood, Mayberg, & Green 2008). This measure was designed to assess the key latent constructs of culture, climate and work attitudes. This survey provides the ability to meaningfully describe the organizational social context profile of a specific organizations to facilitate services improvement and organizational change efforts that could include the implementation of evidence-based practices, installing a clinical information system, or other innovations.

Organizational Size: This is typically assessed through one or more indicators including factors such as number of employees, executive compensation, and/or operating budget.

Program Sustainability Assessment Tool (PSAT; Luke, Calhoun, Robichaux, Elliott, & Moreland-Russell, 2014)

Program Sustainability Index: (Mancini & Marek, 2004). This index serves as a monitoring tool to help to appraise and prioritize the sustainability process, including strengths and gaps.

Readiness for Organizational Change: (Holt, Achilles, Armenakis, Feild, & Harris, 2007). This instrument can be used to gauge readiness for organizational change at an individual level.

Siegel Scale of Support of Innovation: (Siegel, & Kaemmerer, 1978). This scale measures the perceived support for innovation in organizations.

Time Climate Inventory: (Anderson & West, 1996). This is a multi-dimensional measure of facet-specific climate for innovation within groups at work.


Below are qualitative and quantitative approaches to assess and better understand some of the constructs in Bridging Factors



  • Communication tools


Below are measures and approaches to assess innovation factors

EBP Fit index