Below is a list of inner context variables with definitions, examples and quantitative measures that can be used to measure the variable. Click on the name of the measure to see the associated article.

Organizational Characteristics

Definition: Structures or processes that take place and/or exist in organizations that may influence the process of implementation.

Examples: Culture; Climate; Readiness for Change; Structure; Leadership; Receptive Context; Absorptive Capacity; Social Network Support;

Example Quantitative Measures: Group Innovation Inventory; Implementation Climate Scale; Level of Institutional Scale; Organizational Climate Measure; Organizational Culture and Climate via Children’s Services Survey; Organizational Readiness for Change; Organizational Social Context Survey; Organizational Size; Program Sustainability Index; Siegel Scale of Support of Innovation; Organizational Culture and Climate via Children’s Services Survey; Organizational Social Context Survey; Implementation Climate Assessment; Implementation Climate Scale; Organizational Climate Measure; Organizational Social Context Survey; Time Climate Inventory; Organizational Readiness for Change; Readiness for Organizational Change


Definition: Characteristics and behaviors of individuals involved in oversight and/or decision-making related to EBP implementation within an organization.

Examples: Competing Priorities; Use of Climate/Culture Embedding Mechanisms; Transformational leadership; Implementation leadership

Example Quantitative Measures: Implementation Leadership Scale; Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire

Quality & Fidelity Monitoring/Support

Definition: Processes or procedures undertaken to ensure adherence to active delivery of the innovation/EBP and/or an implementation strategy.

Examples: Fidelity Support System; Quality assurance evaluation; Continuous quality improvement

Example Quantitative Measures: Adherence and Skill Checklist; Assessment of Climate Embedding Mechanisms; Examination of Common Dimensions of EBI(s); Performance-based role-plays; Therapist Procedures Checklist-Revised; Therapist Procedures Observational Coding System; Coaching Records

Organizational Staffing Processes

Definition: The processes or procedures in place at an organization related to the hiring, review, and retention of staff involved in the active delivery of the innovation/EBP and/or its implementation.

Examples: Professional training and qualification related to EBI delivery; Staff turnover

Example Quantitative Measures: Data regarding turnover rates and reasons

Individual Characteristics

Definition:Shared or unique characteristics of individuals (e.g., provider, supervisor, director) that influence the process of implementation.

Examples: Attitudes towards EBP; Demographics and/or background; Client characteristics; Job demands

Example Quantitative Measures: Demographics; Emotional Competency Inventory; Evidenced-Based Practice Attitudes Scale; Knowledge of Evidenced-Based Services Questionnaire; Organizational Readiness for Change;

Attitudes towards EBPs: Evidenced-Based Practice Attitudes Scale; Perceived Characteristics of Intervention Scale; Barriers to Research Practice Scale; Implementation Citizenship Behavior Scale; Maslach Burnout Inventory

Patient/Client Advocacy

Definition: Support or marketing for system change based on consumer needs, priorities and/or demographics.

Examples: Client advocacy; class-action lawsuits, consumer organizations